In the first decade of the 20th century, the age-old custom of pistol dueling was briefly resurrected as a non-lethal sport, even making it into the 1908 Olympics as a side event.
To accurately simulate the conditions of a duel, opponents would use real dueling pistols and gunpowder. The bullets, however, were wax.
Duelists were dressed like fencers in heavy canvas clothes with wire-and-glass face masks, their pistols augmented with metal hand guards.
Even with those precautions, the occasional injury was to be expected.